religious experience and insight of charismatic individuals who have served as founders; the sharing of their experience among disciples and followers leads to the establishment of a religious community. In all these cases attention is directed to religious experience as a phenomenon to be described as a factor that performs certain functions in human life and society. The attempt to interpret such concepts as God, faith, conversion, sin, salvation, and worship through personal experience and its expressions opened up a wealth of material for the investigation of religion by psychologists, historians, anthropologists, and sociologists as well as by theologians and philosophers. Such a view can be attributed. Hocking, and Wilbur. If we assume that the experiences cannot be shown a priori to be defective somehow, and that religious language is intelligibleand if we do not make these assumptions, then the question of religious testimony doesnt even arisethen it must be because the evidential value. Such communities play a significant role in the shaping of religious experience and in determining its meaning for the individual through the structure of worship and liturgy and the establishment of a sacred calendar.
The question of the cognitive import or the objective validity of religious experience is one of the most difficult problems encountered in the philosophy of religion. James found the justification of religious experience in its consequences for the life of the individual: valid experience is distinguished by its philosophical reasonableness and moral helpfulness. Knowledge of the Tao is essential to the good life, but this knowledge cannot be learned from discourses, or transmitted by teaching. Experience, as a tissue of sensible content, was set in contrast to reason, understood as the domain of logic and mathematics. For example, Antony Flew (Flew and MacIntyre, 1955) relies on a principle to the effect that if a claim is not falsifiable, it is somehow illegitimate. This claim can be understood in a variety of ways, depending on the kind of normativity that attaches to the purported evidential relation. It seems that they cannot be justified non-circularly, that is, without the use of premises derived from the practices themselves. Even if describing and appraising are not utterly distinct and involve one another, it is generally admitted that the question of validity cannot be settled on the basis of historical or descriptive accounts alone.
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The second form of the immediate is the explicitly mystical sort of experience in which the aim is to pass beyond every form of articulation and to attain unity with the divine. The anthropologist will seek to identify and describe the religious experience of tribal peoples as part of a general history and theory of humanity; the sociologist will concentrate on the social expression of religious experience and seek to determine the nature of specifically religious groupings. Others, such.D. The last issue, transposed in accordance with either a positivist outlook or some types of empiricism, which restrict assertible reality to the realm of sense experience, would be resolved at once by the claim that the problem cannot be meaningfully discussed, since key terms, such. Examples include experiencing God in nature, in the starry sky, or a flower, or the like. The problem has been intensified by many attemptsbeginning with Kants treatise on religion, Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft (1793; Religion Within the Boundary of Pure Reason )to interpret religion as essentially morality or merely as an incentive for doing ones duty. Each language-game has its own rules, including its own procedures for verification. As creationism illustrates, many religious folk think it is perfectly permissible to draw empirical conclusions from religious doctrine.
Key Characteristic of Modernity, The Concept of Art and the Artist in E. O, The Poets Treatment of the Experience of Growing - up,