"movement" initiated in 1861, then on into the 1890's. However, conservatives like Prince Duan opposed the reformers, suspecting a foreign plot. The two principal leaders, Kang Youwei and his student Liang Qichao, fled to Japan to found the Baohuang Hui (Protect the Emperor Society) and to work, unsuccessfully, for a constitutional monarchy in China. Shang Yang s reforms in the state of Qin to the rule.
This led to the coup that ended the Hundred Days' Reform. Wang Anshi ( image Credit: Wikimedia Commons, compared with the revolutions (peasant uprisings, armed rebellions, palace coups, etc.) that toppled dynasties in Chinese history, the goal of reform has been the exact opposite: to perpetuate the dynasty. The Emperor set about to enact his reforms largely bypassing the powerful Grand Council. With the help of certain senior officials of the Qing court who supported reform, Kang Youwei was permitted to speak with the Emperor, and his suggestions were enacted. These included the abolition of the Imperial Examination in 1905, educational and military modernization patterned after the model of Japan, and an experiment in constitutional and parliamentary government. Second, many vigorous reforms in Chinese history had one thing in common: The reformers were not the highest ruler (the emperor).
Principles, how we fail to live up to them
Prison Reform and the Corrections System