the DNA. Borst P, Sabatini R (2008). 80 DNA quadruplex formed by telomere repeats. "DNA enables nanoscale control of the structure of matter". This does not appear to be the entire story. Base modifications and DNA packaging Further information: DNA methylation and Chromatin remodeling The expression of genes is influenced by how the DNA is packaged in chromosomes, in a structure called chromatin. 85 Branched DNA can be used in nanotechnology to construct geometric shapes, see the section on uses in technology below.
"Hydroxyl radicals and DNA base damage". Joyce GF (July 2002).
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This accumulation appears to be an important underlying cause of aging. Doi :.1007/s. 63 64 An alternative analysis was then proposed by Wilkins., in 1953, for the in vivo B-DNA X-ray diffraction-scattering patterns of highly hydrated DNA fibers in terms of squares of Bessel functions. Archived from the original on Retrieved Comment by Dandekar,., Lopez,., Schaack,. 60 These enzymes are also needed to relieve the twisting stresses introduced into DNA strands during processes such as transcription and DNA replication. "Mammalian telomeres end in a large duplex loop". 55 A few DNA sequences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and more in plasmids and viruses, blur the distinction between sense and antisense strands by having overlapping genes. 54 One proposal is that antisense RNAs are involved in regulating gene expression through RNA-RNA base pairing. Within eukaryotic chromosomes, chromatin how Antigone and Creon Became Tragic Heroes proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA. 166 The genetically modified organisms produced can be used to produce products such as recombinant proteins, used in medical research, 167 or be grown in agriculture. Chemical modifications and altered DNA packaging Structure of cytosine with and without the 5-methyl group. "What is the optimum size for the genetic alphabet?".