and facts to simulate a general psychological theory of some aspect of intelligence, or to simulate the application of knowledge in some specific area of expertise; there are systems that simulate reasoning, systems that simulate. Indeed, what does it mean to think? Searle also links intelligence and consciousness, suggesting that conscious intentionality is the essence of intelligent behavior. But what if we dont have that level of understanding? The book presents carefully-selected contents in order to achieve the roles of enlightenment and popularization.
Just manipulating the terrorism and America symbols is not by itself enough to guarantee consciousness, cognition, perception, understanding, thinking and so forth. A possible way around this problem is to create systems which can learn. This need not be at a high cognitive level like responding to chess moves; rather, a fairly primitive thinking machine would have to recognize an obstacle, back up and then move around. What else can it do? Searle does not understand Chinese but he has in the room with him a code book of instructions in English, which tell him how to develop answers. Studies of animal intelligence with data on such animals as: mantis shrimp, lobsters, horseshoe crabs, octopi, and sea anemones (as well as the more traditional studies of rats, mice, birds and, of course, primates) show that they also exhibit other complex behaviors. To investigate the connectionist or artificial neural system hypothesis, mathematical models loosely approximating some of the features of animal nervous systems have been constructed; these are largely limited from a few hundred to a few thousand neurons which are interconnected by links with variable weights. Summary/question: Authenticity, I think, should be everywhere. The advantage of the Turing Machine is not as an actual device to do computation but to clarify operations masked in real computers. It consists of an infinite tape, a sensing head for reading and writing symbols on the tape, and a control box with a finite number of internal states. This book can be used not only as a textbook in senior middle schools, and in vocational colleges, but also as a primer for individually learning fuzzy mathematics.